It’s the first of Jesus’ miracles as recorded by John. And verse 11 tells us the purpose of it: Jesus “manifested forth his glory; and his disciples believed on him.”
As a guest at this wedding, how might Jesus have felt? Engaged couples at another wedding can’t help but have a critical eye for detail. When the service orders are smudged, they make a mental note not to make the same mistake.
Jesus, as the ultimate Bridegroom, has His eyes firmly fixed on the wedding banquet at the end of history. He longs for the day when He will be united to His bride, the church. As such, perhaps he could have sympathised more than most with the “ruler of this feast” (v9). He and the bridegroom were presiding over an unmitigated disaster.
In modern weddings if the wine runs out it’s a little embarrassing. In the first century however, it was utterly shameful – a reflection on the groom and his family. Unless Jesus can step in, questions will be asked not just about the groom’s hosting skills, but also his ability to provide for his new bride.
Jesus acts – but with reluctance (v3-4). Not because he isn’t concerned for the groom – but because “manifesting” His glory will release the handbrake on His public ministry. It will set in chain a series of events that will lead to the cross. Nonetheless He rises to the occasion. And He does far more than anyone could ask or imagine.
Consider first, the quantity of wine produced:
“six waterpots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins apiece (v6).”
A firkin is about 10 gallons. So that’s around 150 gallons or 570 litres of water. Jesus turns it into the equivalent of 760 bottles of wine. And, as the “ruler of the feast” calls it, it’s “good wine” – not plonk (v9-10). Jesus proves Himself to be the true Bridegroom and Ruler of the Feast.
Isaiah spoke of the days of the Messiah in which
the LORD of hosts [shall] make unto all people a feast of fat things, a feast of wines on the lees, of fat things full of marrow, of wines on the lees well refined. (Isaiah 25:6)
And Amos promised that:
the mountains shall drop sweet wine. (Amos 9:13)
Here, in little Cana, the Messiah floods this wedding with a “feast of wines.” It is one aspect of the “glory” which Jesus manifested here: wine represents the new age of the Messiah’s reign.
But wine also means blood. Indeed, from Genesis, wine is called “the blood of the grape” (Genesis 49:11). At the end of His life, Jesus would pick up a cup of wine, saying “This is my blood.” (Matthew 26:28).
In this miracle, Jesus has transformed water used for “the purifying of the Jews” and made it into the blood of the grape. The old cleansing ritual is gone – replaced with a reminder of blood. In this way Jesus brings in His new age of blessings and feasting. Through His blood, He makes us clean and brings us to the ultimate banquet.
The bridegroom from Cana failed to provide. He is a picture of all us failing husbands. But in inviting Jesus to their wedding the couple got something right! The Bridegroom from heaven does not merely make up the shortfall. He floods them with a superabundance of new life and true cleansing. He provides lavishly and lovingly for His bride, the church. And He makes us hungry for that Wedding Feast to come. Without Jesus we’re drinking water. With Him, it’s the finest of wine.